Apolipoprotein (apo) AI is distributed within high-density lipoproteins (HDL) between different types of particles, one containing both apoAI and apoAII (LpAI:AII), the other containing no apoAII (LpAI). We investigated the associations between LpAI and LpAI:AII with several factors such as body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), alcohol intake, cigarette consumption and physical activity, in three French and one Northern Irish male populations included in a prospective study (PRIME study). LpAI and LpAI:AII were associated with variations in all environmental factors, except LpAI:AII, which was not associated with WHR. These relationships were unchanged after adjustment for other environmental factors, but slightly modified after adjustment for triglyceride levels. LpAI decreased when BMI, WHR and cigarette smoking increased, and increased with alcohol consumption and physical activity. LpAI:AII had a similar variation except for the absence of LpAI:AII modification associated with WHR variation. The associations between LpAI and BMI, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were largely dependent on HDL-cholesterol as indicated by the lack of any significance when the adjustment for HDL-cholesterol was made. Conversely, after adjustment for HDL-cholesterol, the significant association between LpAI:AII and BMI disappeared, while the associations between LpAI:AII and alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and physical activity remained significant. These results suggest that the mechanisms of LpAI and LpAI:AII modulations differ according to each environmental factor, some dependent on the lipid content of lipoproteins and others not, but LpAI and LpAI:AII levels seem independent of triglyceride concentration.