Purpose: We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for urinary tract infection in women with type 1 diabetes, and compared the prevalence of cystitis to that in nondiabetic women.
Materials and Methods: Women enrolled in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study were surveyed at year 10 as part of the Uro-EDIC study to assess the prevalence of cystitis and pyelonephritis in the preceding 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression models including measures of glycemic control and vascular complications of type 1 diabetes were used for risk factor analyses. The prevalence of cystitis in Uro-EDIC women was compared to that in a nondiabetic subset of women participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III).
Results: A total of 550 women participated in the Uro-EDIC survey. The prevalence of cystitis and pyelonephritis in the preceding 12 months was 15% and 3%, respectively. Duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1C, retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, composite vascular complication score and intensive glycemic therapy during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial cohort were not associated with cystitis or pyelonephritis. Sexual activity was associated with increased cystitis risk (adjusted OR 8.28; 95% CI 1.45, 158.32; p = 0.01). The adjusted prevalence of cystitis was 19.1% in Uro-EDIC women and 23.1% in NHANES III participants (adjusted OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.51, 1.22; p = 0.28).
Conclusions: In Uro-EDIC women sexual activity rather than measures of diabetes control and complications was the main risk factor for urinary tract infection. The prevalence of cystitis was similar to that in nondiabetic women participants in NHANES III.