Data are presented on resistance of Streptomyces aureofaciens strain TB-633 FU--the producer of chlortetracycline (CTC) to autogenous antibiotics and a number of other antibiotics. It is demonstrated that resistance to CTC is specified by ctr genes of constitutive expression as well as by inducible genes. CTC and ethidium bromide may serve as efficient inductors of inducible ctr genes. The induction process is accompanied by increase in antibiotic biosynthesis level. Genes responsible for strain resistance to a number of macrolide antibiotics and thiostrepton are inducible and only function in the presence of appropriate antibiotics in the medium. The action of inducible mtr gene(s) is described in detail. The gene(s) simultaneously ensure increase in resistance to CTC and a number of macrolide antibiotics in the presence of exogenous inductors in media, such as both CTC and macrolide antibiotics. Mutants have been isolated which provide constitutive level of resistance to these antibiotics. A series of ctr and mtr mutants have increased CTC biosynthesis as compared to the initial level. Data on comparative analysis of the results obtained from hybridization of fragments of S. aureofaciens and S. rimosus DNAs to actI and actIII genes, responsible for polyketide synthases' synthesis, demonstrate that genes for CTC and OTC biosynthesis are situated on DNA fragments of similar size. This determines the strategy for cloning ctr and mtr genes as well as genes for CTC biosynthesis from S. aureofaciens.