Several academic and government organizations have strongly recommended the inclusion of specific competences in clinical research. So far, the current state of research within this framework has not been modified in our country. The main goal of this study was to provide a thorough description of the research activities in medical residencies, which could be used as an indicator of the acquisition of such competences and to identify the supporters and detractors to achieve them. A cross section study was carried out and several levels were analyzed in order to consider residencies as a cluster; 382 residents from 24 different residencies were included. the study showed a preponderance of women. the average age was 29 years old. A 71% of the residents asserted doing research. Half of those residents have stated being authors of papers presented in congresses; only 9% have published their experience. Factors which predict the development of research assignments were: to belong to a large residency, oR 16.99 (IC 95%, 2.096-137.87), being in the 3rd year of the residency, oR 9.95 (IC 95%, 2.84-34.82), completion of a research course, oR 2.78 (IC 95%, 1.10-7.04). Variables which reduce the chance to do research: location in Buenos Aires, oR 0.25 (IC 95%, 0.0072-0.91), being a woman, oR 0.34 (IC 95%, 0.14-0.79) and patients assistance workload, OR 0.97 (IC 95%, 0.95-0.99). We believe that the identification of factors which influence the possibility of doing research will lead to a improvement in the training of medical residents.