Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of congenital malformations among neonates in a teaching hospital.
Methods: The prospective hospital-based study was conducted over a period of 18 months in the neonatal unit of Combined Military Hospital, Kharian, from September 2011 to February 2013. All neonates from newborn to 28 days of age admitted to the unit irrespective of their condition comprised the study population. Neonatal examination was done by the Registrar at the time of admission followed by neonatologist/paediatrician. Information regarding gender, weight, gestational age, mode of delivery, consanguinity, maternal age, antenatal visit record and family history were recorded on a predesigned proforma. After clinical examination, if required, relevant investigations like ultrasonography, radiology, echocardiography, laboratory and genetic studies were done to confirm diagnosis. Data was statistically analysed by using SPSS 20.
Results: Out of 3,210 total admissions, 226 (7%) neonates were congenitally malformed. Of them, 130 (57.52%) were male and 96 (42.47%) females. Among different body systems affected, anomalies related to the central nervous system were 46 (20.35%) musculoskeletal 42 (18.58%), genitourinary 34 (15.04%), cardiovascular system 30 (13.27%), ear, eye, face, neck 27 (11.94%), digestive system 19 (8.40%), syndromes and skin 14 (6.19%) each.
Conclusion: Congenital Malformations are not rare in our community and central nervous system is the most commonly affected system. Healthcare managers must stress upon primary prevention in the form of vaccination, nutrition and drugs to decrease preventable share of congenital malformations.