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Tytuł pozycji:

Association of Restrictive Housing During Incarceration With Mortality After Release.

Tytuł :
Association of Restrictive Housing During Incarceration With Mortality After Release.
Autorzy :
Brinkley-Rubinstein L; Center for Health Equity Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.; Department of Social Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Sivaraman J; Injury Prevention Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Rosen DL; Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Cloud DH; Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
Junker G; North Carolina Department of Public Safety, Raleigh.
Proescholdbell S; North Carolina Department of Public Health, Raleigh.
Shanahan ME; Injury Prevention Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Ranapurwala SI; Injury Prevention Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.; Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
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Źródło :
JAMA network open [JAMA Netw Open] 2019 Oct 02; Vol. 2 (10), pp. e1912516. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Oct 02.
Typ publikacji :
Journal Article
Język :
English
Imprint Name(s) :
Original Publication: Chicago, IL : American Medical Association, [2018]-
MeSH Terms :
Mortality*
Prisoners/*psychology
Social Isolation/*psychology
Adult ; Cause of Death ; Cohort Studies ; Drug Overdose/mortality ; Female ; Homicide/statistics & numerical data ; Housing ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; North Carolina/epidemiology ; Opioid-Related Disorders/mortality ; Retrospective Studies ; Risk Factors ; Suicide/statistics & numerical data ; Young Adult
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Entry Date(s) :
Date Created: 20191005 Date Completed: 20200617 Latest Revision: 20200617
Update Code :
20201218
PubMed Central ID :
PMC6784785
DOI :
10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12516
PMID :
31584680
Czasopismo naukowe
Importance: Restrictive housing, otherwise known as solitary confinement, during incarceration is associated with poor health outcomes.
Objective: To characterize the association of restrictive housing with reincarceration and mortality after release.
Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included 229 274 individuals who were incarcerated and released from the North Carolina prison system from January 2000 to December 2015. Incarceration data were matched with death records from January 2000 to December 2016. Covariates included age, number of prior incarcerations, type of conviction, mental health treatment recommended or received, number of days served in the most recent sentence, sex, and race. Data analysis was conducted from August 2018 to May 2019.
Exposures: Restrictive housing during incarceration.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality (all-cause, opioid overdose, homicide, and suicide) and reincarceration.
Results: From 2000 to 2015, 229 274 people (197 656 [86.2%] men; 92 677 [40.4%] white individuals; median [interquartile range (IQR)] age, 32 years [26-42]), were released 398 158 times from the state prison system in North Carolina. Those who spent time in restrictive housing had a median (IQR) age of 30 (24-38) years and a median (IQR) sentence length of 382 (180-1010) days; 84 272 (90.3%) were men, and 59 482 (63.7%) were nonwhite individuals. During 130 551 of 387 913 incarcerations (33.7%) people were placed in restrictive housing. Compared with individuals who were incarcerated and not placed in restrictive housing, those who spent any time in restrictive housing were more likely to die in the first year after release (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% CI 1.12-1.38), especially from suicide (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.19-2.67) and homicide (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.24-1.91). They were also more likely to die of an opioid overdose in the first 2 weeks after release (HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.16-4.43) and to become reincarcerated (HR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.99-2.34).
Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that exposure to restrictive housing is associated with an increased risk of death during community reentry. These findings are important in the context of ongoing debates about the harms of restrictive housing, indicating a need to find alternatives to its use and flagging restrictive housing as an important risk factor during community reentry.

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