Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of urinary kidney injury molecule-1(uKIM-1) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) at different stages, and to determine the relationships between uKIM-1 and circulating bone metabolism markers.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included CKD patients (n = 121) and controls (n = 65). CKD stages were assigned to each individual according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which was calculated with the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation. We evaluated the relationships of bone metabolism markers (including calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and α-Klotho), uKIM-1, and eGFR. We also compared the levels of bone metabolism markers and uKIM-1 at different CKD stages. The uKIM-1 level was standardized with urine creatinine (uCr).
Results: Compared with healthy controls, CKD patients had higher levels of uKIM-1/uCr, serum creatinine, urea, phosphorus, iPTH, and plasma FGF23, whereas they had lower levels of serum calcium, α-Klotho, and plasma 25(OH)D. In CKD patients, eGFR was positively correlated with levels of serum calcium, α-Klotho, and plasma 25(OH)D, whereas it was negatively correlated with serum phosphorus, iPTH, plasma FGF23, and uKIM-1/uCr. Serum calcium and α-Klotho were significantly decreased in patients with stage 5 CKD compared to those with stage 1 CKD. Serum phosphorus, iPTH, and plasma FGF23 were significantly elevated in patients with stage 4 CKD when compared to those with stage 1 CKD. UKIM-1/uCr was significantly elevated in patients with stage 5 CKD when compared to those with stage 1 CKD. In CKD patients, uKIM-1/uCr levels were positively correlated with levels of serum phosphorus and plasma FGF23, whereas they were negatively correlated with serum calcium and plasma 25(OH)D.
Conclusion: UKIM-1/uCr levels are increased with the deterioration of CKD stage and are correlated with the development of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD).