Does Cannabis Dependence Add on to the Neurocognitive Impairment Among Patients With Opioid Dependence? A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study.
Ghosh A; Department of Psychiatry, Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
Basu D; Department of Psychiatry, Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
Mattoo SK; Department of Psychiatry, Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
Kumar Rana D; Department of Psychiatry, Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
Roub F; Department of Psychiatry, Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
The American journal on addictions [Am J Addict] 2020 Mar; Vol. 29 (2), pp. 120-128. Date of Electronic Publication: 2020 Jan 17.
Typ publikacji :
Comparative Study; Journal Article
Imprint Name(s) :
Publication: Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell
Original Publication: Washington, DC : American Psychiatric Press, c1992-
MeSH Terms :
Adolescent ; Adult ; Case-Control Studies ; Chronic Disease ; Cross-Sectional Studies ; Female ; Humans ; Linear Models ; Male ; Marijuana Abuse/complications ; Middle Aged ; Neurocognitive Disorders/diagnosis ; Neuropsychological Tests ; Opioid-Related Disorders/complications ; Young Adult
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Entry Date(s) :
Date Created: 20200118 Date Completed: 20200930 Latest Revision: 20200930
Update Code :
Background and Objectives: Chronic opioid exposure has been linked with neurocognitive impairments. Evidence of residual impairment with cannabis use is less consistent. We investigated whether patients with opioid and cannabis dependence perform poorly compared with those with opioid dependence alone.
Methods: We recruited three groups of participants aged 18 to 55 years: opioid and cannabis dependence (OCaD; n = 21), only opioid dependence (OD; n = 19), and a control group (HC; n = 20). Subjects with other substance use, human immunodeficiency virus, head injury, epilepsy, and severe mental illness were excluded. Cognitive tests, performed after at least 1 week of abstinence, consisted of the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), Iowa gambling task (IGT), trail making tests A and B (TMT-A and B), verbal and visual N-back test (NBT), and standard progressive matrices for intelligence quotient (IQ). The general linear model was used to compare the groups with age and years of education as covariates.
Results: IQ and severity of opioid dependence were comparable in the three groups. The mean duration of cannabis use was 76.2 (±39.4) months. Compared with the HC, both OD and OCaD had significant impairment on the IGT, WCST, TMTs, and NBT. No significant group difference was observed between the OD and OCaD groups.
Discussion and Conclusions: Opioid dependence is associated with impairments in decision making, executive function, working memory, and attention. Co-morbid cannabis dependence had similar profiles of cognitive impairments.
Scientific Significance: Co-morbid cannabis dependence might not add on to the existing cognitive dysfunction in opioid dependence. Further studies should be done with a larger sample. (Am J Addict 2020;29:120-128).
(© 2020 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.)