Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic animals in Egypt: diagnostic characters and a taxonomic key to the collected species.
Okely M; Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.
Anan R; Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.
Gad-Allah S; Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.
Samy AM; Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.
Medical and veterinary entomology [Med Vet Entomol] 2021 Jan 16. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Jan 16.
Publication Model :
Ahead of Print
Typ publikacji :
Imprint Name(s) :
Original Publication: Oxford ; Boston : Published for the Royal Entomological Society of London by Blackwell Scientific Publications, [c1987-
Abbas, A., Abd El Baky, S., Nadia, H., Abd El-Mohsen, A. & Awad Elham, S. (2006) Seasonal abundance of hard ticks (Ixodidae) in two localities (Giza and Esmaielya governorates) of Egypt. Journal of Faculty of Science Minoufiya University, 20, 65-87.
Abd El-Baky, S.M.M. & Allam, N.A. (2018) Anaplasmosis in ruminants and infesting ticks vectors settling Egyptian desert: epidemiological updates regarding genetic profiles. Bioscience Research, 15, 2651-2667.
Abdel-Shafy, S. & Allam, N.A. (2013) Quantitative real-time RT-PCR detection of flaviviruses associated with camel ticks in Egypt. Global Veterinaria, 10, 394-402.
Abdel-Shafy, S., Allam, N.A., Mediannikov, O., Parola, P. & Raoult, D. (2012) Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae associated with ixodid ticks in Egypt. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases (Larchmont, NY), 12, 346.
Abdel-Shafy, S., Allam, N.A. & Mona, S.M. (2016) Molecular Descriptionof Anaplasma biodiversity regarding 16SrDNA, msp4, hsp60, and rpoB profiles in Ixodid ticks infesting animals from some Egyptian provinces. 41, 121-136.
Abdullah, H.H., El-Molla, A., Salib, F.A., Allam, N.A., Ghazy, A.A. & Abdel-Shafy, S. (2016) Morphological and molecular identification of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of rickettsioses in Egypt. Veterinary World, 9, 1087-1101.
Abdullah, H.H., El-Shanawany, E.E., Abdel-Shafy, S., Abou-Zeina, H.A. & Abdel-Rahman, E.H. (2018) Molecular and immunological characterization of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum (Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Q fever in camels. Veterinary World, 11, 1109-1119.
Aboelhadid, S.M., Arafa, W.M., Wahba, A., Mahrous, L.N., Ibrahium, S.M. & Holman, P.J. (2018) Effect of high concentrations of lufenuron, pyriproxyfen and hydroprene on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Veterinary Parasitology, 256, 35-42.
Adham, F.K., Abd-El-Samie, E., Gabre, R. & El Hussein, H. (2009) Detection of tick blood parasites in Egypt using PCR assay I-Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. Parasitology Research, 105, 721.
Adham, F.K., Abd-El-Samie, E., Gabre, R. & El Hussein, H. (2010) Detection of tick blood parasites in Egypt using PCR assay II-Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 40, 553-564.
AL-Hosary, A.A. (2017) Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for diagnosis of bovine Babesiosis (Babesia bovis infection) in Egypt: LAMP assay for diagnosis of bovine babesiosis. Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research, 7, 71-74.
Allam, N.A., El Moghazy, F.M. & Abdel-Baky, S.M. (2018) Molecular epidemiological updates on spotted fever rickettsioses in animal species and their hard ticks settling Egyptian desert. Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research, 8, 65.
Amin, O.M. & Madbouly, M.H. (1973) Distribution and seasonal dynamics of a tick, a louse fly, and a louse infesting dogs in the Nile Valley and Delta of Egypt. Journal of Medical Entomology, 10, 295-298.
Aouadi, A., Leulmi, H., Boucheikhchoukh, M., Benakhla, A., Raoult, D. & Parola, P. (2017) Molecular evidence of tick-borne hemoprotozoan-parasites (Theileria ovis and Babesia ovis) and bacteria in ticks and blood from small ruminants in northern Algeria. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 50, 34-39.
Apanaskevich, D.A. & Horak, I.G. (2008a) The genus Hyalomma Koch, 1844: V. re-evaluation of the taxonomic rank of taxa comprising the H.(Euhyalomma) marginatum Koch complex of species (Acari: Ixodidae) with redescription of all parasitic stages and notes on biology. International Journal of Acarology, 34, 13-42.
Apanaskevich, D.A. & Horak, I.G. (2008b) The genus Hyalomma. VI. Systematics of H.(Euhyalomma) truncatum and the closely related species, H.(E.) albiparmatum and H.(E.) nitidum (Acari: Ixodidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 44, 115-136.
Apanaskevich, D.A. & Horak, I.G. (2009) The genus Hyalomma Koch, 1844. IX. Redescription of all parasitic stages of H.(Euhyalomma) impeltatum Schulze & Schlottke, 1930 and H.(E.) somalicum Tonelli Rondelli, 1935 (Acari: Ixodidae). Systematic Parasitology, 73, 199-218.
Apanaskevich, D.A., Schuster, A.L. & Horak, I.G. (2008) The genus Hyalomma: VII. Redescription of all parasitic stages of H.(Euhyalomma) dromedarii and H.(E.) schulzei (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 45, 817-831.
Asmaa, N.M., ElBably, M.A. & Shokier, K.A. (2014) Studies on prevalence, risk indicators and control options for tick infestation in ruminants. Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3, 68-73.
Bakirci, S., Sarali, H., Aydin, L., Eren, H. & Karagenc, T. (2012) Distribution and seasonal activity of tick species on cattle in the West Aegean region of Turkey. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 56, 165-178.
Barghash, S., Hafez, A., Darwish, A. & El-Naga, T. (2016) Molecular detection of pathogens in ticks infesting camels in Matrouh governorate, Egypt. Journal of Bacteriology and Parasitology, 7, 2.
Chisholm, K., Dueger, E., Fahmy, N.T. et al. (2012) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks from imported livestock, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18, 181-182.
de la Fuente, J., Estrada-Pena, A., Venzal, J.M., Kocan, K.M. & Sonenshine, D.E. (2008) Overview: ticks as vectors of pathogens that cause disease in humans and animals. Frontiers in Bioscience, 13, 6938-6946.
Donalisio, M.R., Souza, C.E., Angerami, R.N. & Samy, A.M. (2020) Mapping Brazilian spotted fever: linking etiological agent, vectors, and hosts. Acta Tropica, 207, 105496.
El Kady, G. (1998) Protozoal parasites in tick species infesting camels in Sinai peninsula. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 28, 765.
El Kammah, K., Oyoun, L., El Kady, G. & Shafy, S. (2001) Investigation of blood parasites in livestock infested with argasid and ixodid ticks in Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 31, 365-371.
El Kammah, K., Oyoun, L. & Shafy, S. (2007) Detection of microorganisms in the saliva and midgut smears of different tick species (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 37, 533-539.
El-Ashram, S., Aboelhadid, S.M., Kamel, A.A., Mahrous, L.N. & Fahmy, M.M. (2019) First report of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in Egypt resistant to Ivermectin. Insects, 10, 404.
El-Sadawy, H.A. & Abdel-Shafy, S. (2007) Laboratory and field studies on entomopathogenic nematodes as a biocontrol agent for the cattle tick Boophilus annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae). Acarologia, 47, 25-31.
El-Seify, M., Mahran, O. & El-Aal, A. (2011) Epidemiological studies on hard ticks and tick borne parasites, in Shalatin City, red sea governorate, Egypt. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 57, 305-332.
Estrada-Pena, A. & Venzal, J.M. (2007) Climate niches of tick species in the Mediterranean region: modeling of occurrence data, distributional constraints, and impact of climate change. Journal of Medical Entomology, 44, 1130-1138.
Estrada-Pena, A., D'Amico, G., Palomar, A.M. et al. (2017) A comparative test of ixodid tick identification by a network of European researchers. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, 8, 540-546.
Estrada-Peña, A., Mihalca, A.D. & Petney, T.N. (2018). Ticks of Europe and North Africa: A Guide to Species Identification. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Fahmy, M., El-Rahman, A. & Ashmawy, K. (1983) Studies on the susceptibility of ixo'did'ticks to babesia and theileria infectionin Egypt.
Fard, S.R.N., Fathi, S., Asl, E.N., Nazhad, H.A. & Kazeroni, S.S. (2012) Hard ticks on one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) and their seasonal population dynamics in southeast, Iran. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44, 197-200.
Feldman-Muhsarn, B. (1960) The ticks of Sinai. Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel, 9B, 57-64.
Gabriele-Rivet, V., Arsenault, J., Badcock, J. et al. (2015) Different ecological niches for ticks of public health significance in Canada. PLoS One, 10, e0131282.
Ghafar, M.W. & Amer, S.A. (2012) Prevalence and first molecular characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to dogs from Egypt. Journal of Advanced Research, 3, 189-194.
Ghoneim, N.H., Abdel-Moein, K.A. & Zaher, H.M. (2017) Molecular detection of Francisella spp. among ticks attached to camels in Egypt. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 17, 384-387.
Guglielmone, A.A., Robbins, R.G., Apanaskevich, D.A., Petney, T.N., Estrada-Peña, A. & Horak, I.G. (2014) . The Hard Ticks of the World. Springuer, New York, NY.
Hadley, A. (2010) Combine ZP Software, New Version. www.hadleyweb.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/CZP/News.htm. [accessed 26 June 2012].
Hamed, M.I., Zaitoun, A.M., El-Allawy, T.A. & Mourad, M.I. (2011) Investigation of Theileria camelensis in camels infested by Hyalomma dromedarii ticks in upper Egypt. Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research, 1, 4-7.
Haridy, F.M., Hassan, A.A.A., Hafez, A.O., El-Sherbini, G.T. & Morsy, T.A. (2009) External and intestinal parasites of pet dogs with reference to zoonotic toxocariasis. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 39, 321-326.
Hassan, M.I., Gabr, H.S., Abdel-Shafy, S., Hammad, K.M. & Mokhtar, M.M. (2017a) Molecular detection of Borrelia sp. in ornithodoros savignyi and rhipicephalus annulatus by FlaB gene and babesia bigemina in R. annulatus by 18S rRNA gene. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 47, 403-414.
Hassan, M.I., Gabr, H.S., Abdel-Shafy, S., Hammad, K.M. & Mokhtar, M.M. (2017b) Prevalence of tick-vectors of Theileria annulata infesting the one-humped camels in Giza, Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 47, 425-432.
Hoogstraal, H. (1952) Notes on Egyptian ticks (Ixodoidea). I. the genus Argas (Argasidae) in the Cairo area. Proceedings of the Egyptian. Academy of Sciences, 7, 114-127.
Hoogstraal, H. (1956) African Ixodoidea: 1. Ticks of the Sudan (with Special Reference to Equatorial Province and with Preliminary Reviews of the Genera Boophilus, Margaropus, and Hyalomma).
Hoogstraal, H. (1973) Viruses and ticks. Viruses and Invertebmtes (ed. by A.J. Gibbs), pp. 349-390. North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam.
Hoogstraal, H. & Kaiser, M. (1958) The ticks (Ixodoidea) of Egypt. A brief review and keys. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association, 33, 1101.
Hoogstraal, H. & Kaiser, M.N. (1959) Observations on Egyptian Hyalomma ticks (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae). 5. Biological notes and differences in identity of H. anatolicum and its subspecies anatolicum Koch and excavatum Koch among Russian and other workers. Identity of H. lusitanicum Koch. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 52, 243-261.
Horak, I.G., Heyne, H., Williams, R. et al. (2018). The Ixodid Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of Southern Africa. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Huchet, J.-B., Callou, C., Lichtenberg, R. & Dunand, F. (2013) The dog mummy, the ticks and the louse fly: archaeological report of severe ectoparasitosis in ancient Egypt. International Journal of Paleopathology, 3, 165-175.
Kerario, I.I., Muleya, W., Chenyambuga, S., Koski, M., Hwang, S.-G. & Simuunza, M. (2017) Abundance and distribution of Ixodid tick species infesting cattle reared under traditional farming systems in Tanzania. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 12, 286-299.
Labuda, M. & Nuttall, P. (2004) Tick-borne viruses. Parasitology, 129, S221-S245.
Lange, J.V., El Dessouky, A.G., Manor, E., Merdan, A.I. & Azad, A.F. (1992) Spotted fever rickettsiae in ticks from the northern Sinai Governate, Egypt. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 46, 546-551.
Liebish, A., Rahaman, M.S. & Hoogstaal, H. (1989) Tick fauna of Egypt with special reference to studies on Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum the natural vector of theilerioses. Progress in Acarology, 1, 55-58.
Loftis, A.D., Reeves, W.K., Szumlas, D.E. et al. (2006) Rickettsial agents in Egyptian ticks collected from domestic animals. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 40, 67-81.
Mahrous, L.N. & Kamel, A.A. (2016) Resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annultus populations against commercial preparation of Deltamethrin, Beni-Suef, Egypt. Egyptian Veterinary Medical Society of Parasitology Journal (EVMSPJ), 12, 11-24.
Mazyad, S. & Khalaf, S. (2002) Studies on theileria and babesia infecting live and slaughtered animals in Al Arish and El Hasanah, North Sinai governorate, Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 32, 601.
Morel, P. (2003) Les Tiques d'Afrique et du Bassin Méditerranéen (1965-1995). Can Tho: CIRAD-EMVT, 1342.
Okely, M., Anan, R., Gad-Allah, S. & Samy, A.M. (2020) Mapping the environmental suitability of etiological agent and tick vectors of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Acta Tropica, 203, 105319.
Parola, P. & Raoult, D. (2001) Ticks and tickborne bacterial diseases in humans: an emerging infectious threat. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 32, 897-928.
Perveen, N., Bin Muzaffar, S. & Al-Deeb, M.A. (2020) Population dynamics of Hyalomma dromedarii on camels in The United Arab Emirates. Insects, 11, 320.
Ramadan, M., Elakabawy, L., Elmadawy, R. & Kamal, M. (2016) Prevalence of hard tick infesting cattle with a special reference to microscopic and molecular early diagnosis of tick born piroplasms. Benha Veterinary Medical Journal, 30, 51-60.
Rizkalla, E., Hassanain, M., Fahmy, M. & El-Bahy, M. (1992) Prevalence of tick-vectors in New Valley governorate, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Veterinary Science (Egypt), 29, 89-97.
Robinson, L. E. (1926) The Genus Amblyomma.-Ticks: A Monograph of the Ixodoidea, Fart IV. The Genus Amblyomma.-Ticks: A Monograph of the Ixodoidea, Fart IV.
Rohlf, F. (2010). tpsDig v. 2.16. Department of Ecology and Evolution. State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.
Rouby, S., Hussein, K., Aboelhadid, S.E. & Sherif, A.M. (2017) Role of rhipicephalus annulatus tick in transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in naturally infected cattle in Egypt. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 5, 185-191.
Rubina, M., Braverman, Y. & Frish, K. (1984) Ticks collected from domestic animals in Sinai and adjoining areas in Israel and their medical and veterinary importance. Cahiers-ORSTOM. Entomologie Médicale et Parasitologie, 22, 303-311.
Said, M.B., Belkahia, H. & Messadi, L. (2018) Anaplasma spp. in North Africa: a review on molecular epidemiology, associated risk factors and genetic characteristics. Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases, 9, 543-555.
Schöl, H., Dongus, H. & Gothe, R. (1995) Morphology of spiracles in adult Hyalomma truncatum ticks (Acari; Ixodidae). Experimental & Applied Acarology, 19, 287-306.
Shemshad, K., Rafinejad, J., Kamali, K. et al. (2012) Species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in Qazvin Province, Iran. Parasitology Research, 110, 373-380.
Van Straten, M. & Jongejan, F. (1993) Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the Sinai, Egypt with a note on the acaricidal efficacy of ivermectin. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 17, 605-616.
Walker, A., Bouattour, A., Camicas, J.L., et al. (2003) Ticks of Domestic Animals in Africa: A Guide to Identification of Species. Edinburgh, Scotland, UK: Bioscience Reports.
Williams, R., Hoogstraal, H., Casals, J., Kaiser, M. & Moussa, M. (1973) Isolation of Wanowrie, Thogoto, and Dhori viruses from Hyalomma ticks infesting camels in Egypt. Journal of Medical Entomology, 10, 143-146.
Youssef, S.Y., Yasien, S., Mousa, W.M.A. et al. (2015) Vector identification and clinical, hematological, biochemical, and parasitological characteristics of camel (Camelus dromedarius) theileriosis in Egypt. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 47, 649-656.
Grant Information :
Egyptian Fulbright Mission Program
Contributed Indexing :
Keywords: Diagnostic characters; Hyalomma dromedarii; R. sanguineus; Rhipicephalus annulatus; domestic animals; hard ticks; taxonomy
Entry Date(s) :
Date Created: 20210116 Latest Revision: 20210116
Update Code :
Ticks are important vectors of emerging health problems in humans and animals. We conducted several field surveillances to investigate the fauna of hard ticks on domestic animals in seven governorates of Egypt during 2018-2019. A total of 3265 individual tick specimens were collected and identified to the species level; the specimens belong to 11 species within three genera (Amblyomma, Hyalomma, and Rhipicephalus). Tick infestation was highest in dromedary camels (70%), followed by dogs (52.5%), cattle (50%), buffaloes (38%), and horses (12%). Ten species were collected from dromedary camels, 2 from cattle, and one species from dogs, buffaloes, and horses. Diagnostic characters with high-quality photographic images of the 11 tick species were provided. New measurements of the body regions such as spiracles and body grooves were also obtained to provide further details on morphological variations among the diverse tick species. This study provided detailed descriptions of the genital apertures of five Hyalomma species. Morphological variations of male Hyalomma impeltatum, and genital apertures of female Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum were also examined in this study. Finally, we provided additional details on local geographic distributions, hosts, endemicity status, and disease relationships of the eleven tick species.
(© 2021 The Royal Entomological Society.)