A novel method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) based on the cathodic stripping response at a bismuth film electrode associated with oxine as a chelating agent. The developed method provided a high and sharp electrochemical response compared with the method without oxine. A linear response of peak currents was observed for Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) concentration in the range from 2 ppb to 110 ppb. The detection limits of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) were 0.45, 0.17, and 0.78 ppb, respectively. This method was successfully applied to the determination of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) in lake-water and river-water samples. The metals were detected at the ultratrace level, showing the feasibility of the proposed method for environmental applications. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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