Effect of selenium supplementation on productive performance and antioxidant status of broilers under heat stress: a meta-analysis and a meta-regression.
Zepeda-Velazquez, A. P.
Ramirez-Perez, A. H.
Salinas-Martinez, J. A.
Angeles-Hernandez, J. C.
Animal Production Science; 2021, Vol. 61 Issue 3, p208-214, 7p
Heat stress and a high metabolic rate of broilers increase the production of reactive oxygen species, which must be removed by antioxidants to prevent oxidative stress. Selenium (Se) is a potent antioxidant as it is a structural part of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Dietary supplementation of Se can help reduce the oxidative stress caused by heat-stress conditions. The aim was to evaluate the effect of Se supplementation on the performance and antioxidant status of broilers under heat stress, by using a meta-analysis approach, and to quantify the contribution to heterogeneity of the explanatory variables through a meta-regression procedure. A database of 74 trials was created from 56 published studies that met the following inclusion criteria: papers that reported a measure of effect size, sample size, measure of variability and random procedure. The response variables were GPx and malondialdehyde concentrations, DM intake, average daily gain, and feed conversion rate. Broiler line, Se source, and dosage, heat-stress level, days of experimentation, sample source (blood, liver or meat) and basal Se concentration were considered to be explanatory variables. All statistical analyses were performed in R software, by using the 'meta' and 'Metafor' packages for meta-analysis and meta-regression respectively. High concentrations of GPx were found in Se-supplemented broilers (>1.76; P = 0.001), in comparison to control groups. However, when the random model was applied to GPx studies, it showed high heterogeneity (I 2 = 95.4%), which was reduced (I 2 = 61.5) when heat-stress temperature, Se source and its dosage and tissue sample were included as covariates in the meta-regression analysis. The highest standard mean difference of GPx was founded in studies that reported supplementation with inorganic Se sources (2.92), in comparison to supplementation with organic and nano-Se sources (1.66 and 1.44 respectively). The standard mean differences of malondialdehyde and feed conversion rate were significantly lower (<0.66 and <0.11 respectively) in supplemented broilers. Heterogeneity of all variables decreased when the explanatory variables were included in the mixed-regression model. Our findings confirmed that Se supplementation improves the broiler's antioxidant status and productive performance. However, the response level was affected by dosage and source of Se and the level of heat stress. The heat stress has been associated with detrimental effects of productive performance in broilers. Selenium supplementation is a viable option to reduce the effect of heat stress on oxidative status. However, its response level is influenced by dosage and source of selenium supplementation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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