Extracellular vesicles from HTLV-1 infected cells modulate target cells and viral spread.
Pinto, Daniel O.
Al Sharif, Sarah
Liotta, Lance A.
ADULT T-cell leukemia
Retrovirology; 2/23/2021, Vol. 18 Issue 1, p1-27, 27p
Terminy geograficzne :
Background: The Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-1 (HTLV-1) is a blood-borne pathogen and etiological agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1 has currently infected up to 10 million globally with highly endemic areas in Japan, Africa, the Caribbean and South America. We have previously shown that Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) enhance HTLV-1 transmission by promoting cell–cell contact. Results: Here, we separated EVs into subpopulations using differential ultracentrifugation (DUC) at speeds of 2 k (2000×g), 10 k (10,000×g), and 100 k (100,000×g) from infected cell supernatants. Proteomic analysis revealed that EVs contain the highest viral/host protein abundance in the 2 k subpopulation (2 k > 10 k > 100 k). The 2 k and 10 k populations contained viral proteins (i.e., p19 and Tax), and autophagy proteins (i.e., LC3 and p62) suggesting presence of autophagosomes as well as core histones. Interestingly, the use of 2 k EVs in an angiogenesis assay (mesenchymal stem cells + endothelial cells) caused deterioration of vascular-like-tubules. Cells commonly associated with the neurovascular unit (i.e., astrocytes, neurons, and macrophages) in the blood–brain barrier (BBB) showed that HTLV-1 EVs may induce expression of cytokines involved in migration (i.e., IL-8; 100 k > 2 k > 10 k) from astrocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (i.e., IL-8; 2 k > 10 k). Finally, we found that EVs were able to promote cell–cell contact and viral transmission in monocytic cell-derived dendritic cell. The EVs from both 2 k and 10 k increased HTLV-1 spread in a humanized mouse model, as evidenced by an increase in proviral DNA and RNA in the Blood, Lymph Node, and Spleen. Conclusions: Altogether, these data suggest that various EV subpopulations induce cytokine expression, tissue damage, and viral spread. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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