First record of the endophytic bacteria of Deschampsia antarctica Ė. Desv. from two distant localities of the maritime Antarctic.
Maria Pirttila, Anna
ANTARCTIC environmental conditions
Czech Polar Reports; 2021, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p134-153, 20p
Endophytic bacteria, recognized for their beneficial effects on plant development and adaptation, can facilitate the survival of Antarctic plants in severe environments. Here we studied endophytes of the vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica Ė. Desv. from two distantly located regions in the maritime Antarctic: King George Island (South Shetland Islands) and Galindez Island (Argentine Islands). Bacterial group-specific PCR indicated presence of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cytophaga-Flavobacteria and Actinobacteria in root and leaf endosphere of D. antarctica sampled at four distinct sites of both locations. The diversity of endophytic bacteria was significantly higher in the leaves compared to the roots in plants from Galindez Island. Similarly, the diversity of endophytes was higher in the leaves rather than roots of plants from the King George Island. Twelve bacterial species were isolated from roots of D. antarctica of Galindez Island (the Karpaty Ridge and the Meteo Point) and identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Isolates were dominated by the Pseudomonas genus, followed by the genera Bacillus and Micrococcus. The vast majority of the isolates exhibited cellulase and pectinase activities, however, Bacillus spp. expressed neither of them, suggesting lack of genetic flow of these traits in endophytic bacilli in the maritime Antarctic. Pseudomonas sp. IMBG305 promoted an increase in the leaf number in most of the treated plant genotypes when compared with noninoculated plants, and a rapid vegetation period of D. antarctica cultured in vitro, albeit the length of leaves in the treated plants was significantly lower, and flavonoid content leveled off in all treated plants. D. antarctica is known to develop diverse ecotypes with regard to ecological conditions, such as organic input, moisture or wind exposition. The D. antarctica phenotype could be extended further through the endophyte colonization, since phenotypic changes were observed in the inoculated D. antarctica plants grown in vitro in our study. Herewith, endophytes can contribute to plant phenotypic plasticity, potentially beneficial for adaptation of D. antarctica. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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