One of the greatest problems of modern production techniques is the achievement of an appropriate quality at minimal costs and accompanied by the production efficiency increase. Therefore, while designing the production process, the technology used should have a considerable influence on the durability and reliability of machine parts to be produced. During finish treatment, the final dimensions as well as functional properties are imparted to a given element by application of proper treatment type. The engineer has a range of production techniques to choose for the proper surface layer formation. It is crucial to find a suitable solution which will meet the requirements as well as the work conditions of a given machine part. The article presents the results of influence of treatment conditions during turning of shafts on the cutting forces and surface roughness parameter. A roller made of S235JR steel was used for the research. The cutting process was carried out on a universal CDS 6250 BX-1000 and CU500MRD centre lathes. Measurement of cutting forces during lathing process used DKM 2010 and Kistler turning dynamometers. The turning process was conducted by a cutting tool with CCMT09T304 PF removable plate. During the turning, the following machining parameters were used: cutting speed Vc = 150 m/min, feed f=0.106 mm/rev and cutting depth ap = 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 mm. The surface roughness was measured by T8000 profilometer.