The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is proposed as an innovative semiconductor-compatible fabrication technique in order to realise different thin film materials for chemical sensor applications. As two examples, Ta(2)0(5) and Al(2)0(3) layers on top of capacitive Si/Si0(2) structures and chalcogenide glass layers on metallised Si substrates show a nearly-Nernstian pH sensitivity of about 55-58 mV per decade and a high sensitivity towards bi- and univalent heavy metal ions of about 25-29 mV and 56-60 mV per decade, respectively. The layer thickness of the sensor materials is in the nm range. Even multi-component systems consisting of up to five different elements can be stoichiometrically deposited. Besides the electrochemical sensor characterisation, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, ion channeling experiments, X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy have been performed in order to study the physical layer structure of the pulsed laser-deposited thin film materials.