The transition from the Lower to the Middle Palaeolithic is a key period in Prehistory, characterized by numerous changes in the subsistence and production patterns of human groups. It can be seen as a period of rupture or a phase of gradual transformation, depending on the framework and scale considered. In the first part, we will describe how this transition was perceived by prehistorian according to their perception of time and chronology. Then, our objective is to show how our view of this transition has been considerably renewed thanks to the increase in archaeological data and the building of an increasingly precise chronological framework. Finally, we will attempt to present a state of research on the transition between the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic in southern Europe with a focus on the behavioral and technological changes in the South of France between 350,000 and 130,000 years ago.