Based on a nonlinear disturbance observer, a backstepping sliding mode robust control is proposed for a wire-driven parallel robot (WDPR) system used in the wind tunnel test to dominate the motion of the end effector. The control method combines both the merits of backstepping control and sliding mode robust control. The WDPR is subject to different types of disturbances, and these disturbances will affect the motion precision of the end effector. To overcome these problems, a nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO) is designed to reject such disturbances. In this study, the design method of the nonlinear disturbance observer does not require the reliable dynamic model of the WDPR. Moreover, the design method can be used not only in the WDPR but also in other parallel robots. Then, a backstepping design method is adopted and a sliding mode term is introduced to construct a desired controller, and the disturbances are compensated in the controller to reduce the switching gain and guarantee the robustness. For the sake of verifying the stabilization of the closed-loop system, the Lyapunov function is constructed to analyze the stabilization of the system. Finally, the feasibility and validity of the proposed control scheme are proved through both simulation and experimental results.