At the beginning of the XXI century the ties between Russia and Spain were tightened after overcoming the Russian economic crisis of the 1990s: trade and the flow of Russian tourists to the Iberian country increased. The Russians began to actively invest in the Spanish real estate market. In the field of international politics, States agreed on the fight against international terrorism and the critique of separatism. However, they had serious discrepancies. The Russian authorities were against the active participation of Spain in the US invasion of Iraq in 2003. Nevertheless, the most difficult stage in relations began after the Ukrainian crisis of 2014, when Western countries, including Spain, imposed sanctions on Russia. However, despite the tensions between Russia and the European Union, Madrid maintains a special relationship with Moscow. The Spanish government hosted Russian submarines in Ceuta.