Abstract Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) and adenoidal hypertrophy (AH) are the most frequent causative disorders of nasal obstruction in children, leading to recurrent respiratory infections. Both nasal cavities are colonized by a stable microbial community susceptible to environmental changes and Staphylococcus aureus seems to play the major role. Furthermore, nasal microbiota holds a large number and variety of viruses with upper respiratory tract infections. This local microbiota deserves attention because its modification could induce a virtuous cross-talking with the immune system, with a better clearance of pathogens. Although AR and AH present a different etiopathogenesis, they have in common a minimal chronic inflammation surrounding nasal obstruction; hence it would be challenging to evaluate the effect of an immunomodulator on this minimal chronic inflammation with possible clinical and microbiological effects. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the efficacy of an immunomoldulator (Pidotimod) on nasal obstruction in children with AR and/or AH and whether its action involves a variation of nasal microbiota. Methods We enrolled 76 children: those with allergic rhinitis (AR) sensitized to dust mites entered the AR group, those with adenoidal hypertrophy (AH) the AH group, those with both conditions the AR/AH group and those without AR ± AH as controls (CTRL). At the first visit they performed: skin prick tests, nasal fiberoptic endoscopy, anterior rhinomanometry, nasal swabs. Children with. AR ± AH started treatment with Pidotimod. After 1 month they were re-evaluated performing the same procedures. The primary outcome was the evaluation of nasal obstruction after treatment and the secondary outcome was the improvement of symptoms and the changes in nasal microflora. Results All patients improved their mean nasal flow (mNF) in respect to the baseline. In AR children mNF reached that one of CTRL. In AH children±AR the mNF was lower in respect to CTRL and AR group. We did not find any differences among all the groups at the two different time points in nasal microflora. Conclusions Pidotimod is able to give an improvement in nasal obstruction, especially in AR children but this effect seems to be not mediated by changes in nasal microbiota.
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