Hundreds of fish species are harvested in coral-reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific region using a variety of fishing gears. This diversity makes the economics, ecology, and management of reef-associated fisheries inherently complex. However, across insular fisheries spanning the tropical Pacific, one species consistently dominates contemporary fisheries catch: the bluespine unicornfish (Naso unicornis, Acanthuridae). I evaluated the relative contribution of N. unicornis to commercial fisheries in the insular Pacific region from long-term (>1 year) fishery surveys across various jurisdictions and provide evidence of the contemporary cultural value of this species. Overall, evidence suggests that N. unicornis is the most commercially-valuable reef-associated fish species across the insular Pacific. This notion, coupled with a diverse representation of N. unicornis across Pacific cultures, suggests that the species is presently underappreciated in its role in coastal fisheries across Pacific Island nations.