Large-scale deployment of new medicines has been observed over the last two decades in many Sub-Saharan Africa countries faced with major public health issues such as malaria and HIV/AIDS. However, some of these medicines may be responsible for varying degrees of toxicity, with adverse drug reactions leading to decreased compliance or even discontinuation of treatment. Pharmacovigilance systems therefore had to be set up in these countries, such as in Burkina Faso, West Africa, which initiated the organization of pharmacovigilance activities in 2008. Despite this progress, the systems in place have not yet achieved a sufficient level of performance to deal with drug-related health issues, highlighting the need for further actions. Pharmacovigilance in Burkina Faso can be strengthened at multiple levels: pre-service and in-service training of health workers; the establishment of active surveillance based on sentinel sites; informing the public and raising awareness; and strengthening national coordination.