Previous research on gender-based inequality in public-sector state-level bureaucracies finds evidence of glass ceilings and glass walls; however, previous research does not evaluate these factors together, nor does this research extend beyond the late 1990s. This study uses newly available data from the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)—data spanning from 1995 to 2015 that include the entire universe of female and male administrators—to evaluate this research question: Are gender-based pay disparities and glass walls among administrators in state-level bureaucracies related to the policy/program missions of state agencies? This study observes administrative-level gender-based pay disparities in all state agency types. Furthermore, this study finds evidence of occupational segregation or glass walls in distributive and regulatory agencies, but not in redistributive agencies. The findings indicate some progress for women; however, as recently as 2015, U.S. state bureaucracies, on average, did not achieve gender equity among their administrative ranks. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Copyright of Public Personnel Management is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Zaloguj się, aby uzyskać dostęp do pełnego tekstu.