Similar to the Ambika in this case, the jina Malli--the nineteenth in the series of twenty-four Jaina teachers--appears almost as a two-dimensional figure. Each element of the elaborate throne is a cutout figure, from the lions under his knees to the guardian figures at his sides and small jinas seated over his shoulders.; ; The "VS" in the date indicates Vikram Samvat, a calendar that begins in the year 57 B.C.E. Full inscription not read.; ; ; Malli is the nineteenth of the Jaina line of twenty-four teachers. Loosely translated as Spiritual Victors and called Peaceful Liberators in an important exhibition catalogue, there is a line of twenty-four jinas in Jainism. Their other important title is Tirthamkara, or "ford crosser" designating them as figures who can teach others in the means for liberation. Jaina cosmology consists of a constant swing from perfection to dissolution and twenty-four jinas map out this progression. There is a tradition among the Shvetambara sect that Malli may have been a woman. In other sects that would be impossible since woman are not able to reach enlightenment.; Note: in the center on the level of the navagraha is a stylized cakra or wheel of the law and deer in center. This motif is also found in Buddhism where it signifies the Buddha's first teaching in the Deer Park at Sarnatha. The Jainas also use it.; ; Jain bronze altar; 15th century; jainism; associated concepts; people and culture; religion; religions; religions and religious concepts Image.
A confutatio[n] of vnwritte[n] verities both bi the holye scriptures and moste auncient autors, and also probable arguments, and pithy reasons, with plaine aunswers to al (or at the least) to the moste part and strongest argumentes, which the aduersaries of gods truth, either haue, or can bryng forth for the profe and defence of the same vnwritten vanities, verities as they would haue them called: made up by Thomas Cranmer ... translated and set forth, by E.P. The contentes whereof, thou shalte find in the next side folowinge.
An aunswer to sixe reasons, that Thomas Pownde, Gentleman, and prisoner in the Marshalsey. at the commaundement of her Maiesties Commissioners, for causes Ecclesisasticall: required to be aunswered Because these reasons doo moue him to think, that controuersies and doubts in religion, may not be iudged by the Scriptures, but that the Scriptures must be iudged by the Catholique Church. ... Written by Robert Crovvley.
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